Digital communication innovations such as ADSL, DSL and, importantly, fibre-optics have paved the way for broadband Internet communications. Wireless and satellite communications are a huge and growing part of the picture, with profound global network implications.
The fundamental principle of networking is to allow computers to share and exchange data. However, various local and wide area networks can have a range of characteristics. Here network cabling, topologies and hardware are detailed.
Serial communications can be relatively slow, but they form the base from which other communication methods have developed. Early modems offered shaky 14k communications over phone lines, but later V90 standard modems gave far greater speed and reliability, and further may include fax, voice and video modems.